DiGeorge (DGS, MIM 188400) and velocardiofacial (VCFS, MIM 192430) syndromes may present many clinical problems including cardiac defects, hypoparathyroidism, T-cell immunodeficiency and facial dysmorphism. They are frequently associated with deletions within 22q11.2, but a number of cases have no detectable molecular defect of this region. A number of single case reports with deletions of 10p suggest genetic heterogeneity of DGS. Here we compare the regions of hemizygosity in four patients with terminal deletions of 10p (one patient diagnosed as having hypoparathyroidism and three as DGS) and one patient with a large interstitial deletion (diagnosed as VCFS). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis demonstrates that these patients have overlapping deletions at the 10p13/10p14 boundary. A YAC contig spanning the shortest region of deletion overlap (SRO) has been assembled, and allows the size of SRO to be approximated to 2 Mb. As with deletions of 22q11, phenotypes vary considerably between affected patients. These results strongly support the hypothesis that haploinsufficiency of a gene or genes within 10p (the DGSII locus) can cause the DGS/VCFS spectrum of malformation.