We investigated a patient with Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) negative but BCR positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In the chronic phase one chromosome 9 contained a BCR/ABL fusion gene instead of chromosome 22. Although in blast crisis, both chromosomes 9 had BCR/ABL fusion genes. This could be caused by duplication of the rearranged chromosome 9, which may have a significance similar to a double Ph chromosome. This may suggest that the critical event in CML is the formation of a BCR/ABL chimeric gene regardless of its locus in the genome.