A randomised double-blind controlled clinical trial was conducted to compare oral ciprofloxacin (500 mg b.d.) and amoxycillin (1 g t.d.s.) in the treatment of infective exacerbations of bronchiectasis. The commonest organism isolated from sputum was Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which accounted for 34% of all positive sputum cultures. Other Pseudomonas species and Haemophilus influenzae, accounted for 19%, respectively. Ciprofloxacin produced better clinical response, a higher sputum to serum antibiotic level (mean of 0.65 in the ciprofloxacin group vs. 0.18 in amoxycillin group, p = 0.0001), broader spectrum of antibacterial activity and less side-effect. It was also better tolerated by patients. The findings suggest that ciprofloxacin is an effective treatment of infective exacerbations of bronchiectasis.