Several recent reports have suggested that the sperm counts of normal men are declining in most countries. In this study the sperm counts of Finnish men, and their possible changes during the past 28 years, were investigated. The material consisted of semen samples from 238 normal healthy men of unknown fertility and 5481 men from infertile couples. The means (medians) of semen volume, sperm density and total sperm count in normal men were 3.3 (3.0) ml, 133.9 (94.0) x 10(6)/ml and 396.6 (309.0) x 10(6), respectively. These parameters and the relative frequency distribution of the sperm density were similar to those reported elsewhere in the 1940s. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed a significant decrease in semen volume, whereas sperm density and total sperm count of infertile men had not changed significantly during the past 28 years. In addition, no change in sperm counts was associated with the year of men's birth.