Ceftazidime Pharmacokinetics in Preterm Infants: Effect of Postnatal Age and Postnatal Exposure to Indomethacin

Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1995 Nov;40(5):439-43.

Abstract

1. The effects of postnatal age and postnatal exposure to indomethacin on the pharmacokinetic parameters of ceftazidime (CAZ) were investigated in 23 preterm infants (gestational age 28.7 +/- 1.7 weeks; weight 1086 +/- 311 g) on day 3 and day 10 after birth. 2. CAZ (25 mg kg-1) was administered by intravenous bolus injection. Blood samples were drawn from an arterial catheter at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h after the dose and CAZ concentrations in serum were determined by h.p.l.c. CAZ pharmacokinetics followed a one-compartment open model. 3. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of all infants was studied by means of the 24 h continuous inulin infusion technique. 4. The total body clearance of CAZ (34.7 +/- 9.2 vs 50.6 +/- 19.6 ml h-1, P < 0.05; 30.7 +/- 5.9 vs 41.6 +/- 9.0 ml h-1 kg-1, P < 0.05) and GFR (0.72 +/- 0.11 vs 0.91 +/- 0.15 ml min-1, P < 0.05) increased, whereas the apparent volume of distribution (425 +/- 147 vs 352 +/- 108 ml, P < 0.05; 363 +/- 59 vs 292 +/- 44 ml kg-1, P < 0.005) and the elimination half-life (8.7 +/- 2.8 vs 5.0 +/- 0.9 h, P < 0.005) decreased significantly between day 3 and day 10 after birth. Clearance of CAZ increased with increasing GFR (r = 0.81, P < 0.001). 5. In infants with postnatal exposure to indomethacin the changes in CAZ pharmacokinetics were markedly reduced. 6. These results indicate that the dosage regimen of CAZ should be adjusted after the first week of life except in infants who were postnatally exposed to indomethacin.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Ceftazidime / pharmacokinetics*
  • Cephalosporins / pharmacokinetics*
  • Drug Interactions
  • Half-Life
  • Humans
  • Indomethacin / pharmacology*
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Premature*
  • Infant, Very Low Birth Weight
  • Kidney / drug effects*
  • Metabolic Clearance Rate / drug effects

Substances

  • Cephalosporins
  • Ceftazidime
  • Indomethacin