A survey to determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment in the Extreme North Province of Cameroon was conducted in the Spring of 1992. A total of 10,647 people age 6 years and older was selected from a multi-stage, clustered sample stratified by ecological zone. The subjects were examined by ophthalmologist-led teams for visual acuity and ocular diseases. Approximately 1.2% of the sample was bilaterally blind by the World Health Organization classification (Category 3) of vision less than the ability to count fingers at 3 meters. Similarly to results found in other developing countries, senile cataract was the most common diagnosis encountered and the most frequent principal cause of low vision and blindness.