Purpose: A prospective, multicenter, randomized study was done to test the hypothesis that neoadjuvant androgen withdrawal decreases the incidence of positive margins following radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer.
Materials and methods: Observations were made of 213 patients randomized to undergo radical prostatectomy alone (101) or to receive a 12-week course of 300 mg. cyproterone acetate daily followed by surgery (112). Groups were similar at baseline in terms of clinical stage, serum prostate specific antigen and Gleason score. Of 192 patients available for efficacy analysis 9 had stage T1b, 8 stage T1c, 63 stage T2a, 36 stage T2b and 76 stage T2c disease.
Results: One or more positive surgical margins were found in 59 of 91 patients (64.8%) in the surgery only group compared to 28 of 101 (27.7%) in the cyproterone acetate group (p = 0.001). Patients who received preoperative therapy had a statistically significantly lower rate of apical margin involvement than those who did not (17.8 versus 47.8%, respectively, p < 0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference in surgical (p = 0.8645) or postoperative (p = 0.173) complications between the 2 groups.
Conclusions: Neoadjuvant androgen withdrawal with a 12-week course of 300 mg. cyproterone acetate daily results in a lower rate of positive margins without adversely affecting postoperative recovery. The impact on patient survival will be determined by long-term followup.