Ureteroscopy with intravenous sedation for treatment of distal ureteral calculi: a safe and effective alternative to shock wave lithotripsy

J Urol. 1996 Sep;156(3):899-901; discussion 902.


Purpose: We evaluated the safety, efficacy and patient tolerance of ureteroscopy with intravenous sedation for treatment of distal ureteral calculi.

Materials and methods: Ureteroscopy with intravenous sedation was performed in 68 patients, with small distal ureteral calculi requiring treatment and in 2 with middle or upper third ureteral calculi. Intravenous sedation and analgesia were achieved with a combination of fentanyl and midazolam. Balloon dilation of the ureter was performed in 38 patients. Ureteroscopy was performed with a 6F rigid ureteroscope.

Results: Stone removal was successful in 66 patients (97%). There were no ureteral perforations in patients undergoing successful stone removal and no complications related to intravenous sedation. Tolerance of the procedure was good in 81% of the patients (including 72% of 36 men and 94% of 32 women undergoing ureteroscopy for distal ureteral calculi) and fair in 19%.

Conclusions: In select patients with small distal ureteral calculi ureteroscopy offers a safe, effective and well tolerated alternative to shock wave lithotripsy.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Analgesia
  • Catheterization
  • Conscious Sedation*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Injections, Intravenous
  • Lithotripsy
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Ureteral Calculi / therapy*
  • Ureteroscopy*