Purpose: To evaluate carrier-mediated intestinal secretion of talinolol enantiomers in vivo and in vitro.
Methods: In clinical studies with i.v. and p.o. dosage of rac-talinolol (30 mg and 100 mg, resp.) performed in a small number of cholecystectomized patients total and partial clearances were determined on the basis of plasma, bile and urine concentrations. The dose-dependence of AUC was investigated in 12 healthy volunteers (25, 50, 100, and 400 mg rac-talinolol as single p.o. doses). Concentration-dependence of the permeability across Caco-2 cell monolayers included concentrations from 0.1 to 2.0 mM, inhibition by verapamil was tested at 0.5 mM.
Results: The total clearance as well as the apparent oral clearance (CL/F) were slightly higher for S-(-)- than for R-(+)-talinolol. Calculation of the partial clearances showed that also the residual clearance was higher for the S- than for the R-enantiomer. In the healthy volunteers, CL/F increased with increasing doses, while the S/R ratio decreased approaching unity for the highest dose. Also the results from Caco-2 cell permeation studies yielded a clear concentration-dependence with decreasing stereoselectivity for the higher concentration range. Permeability of both enantiomers was considerably higher for b-->a than a-->b transport, however, this difference disappeared when verapamil was added.
Conclusions: Although not very expressed, the detected stereoselectivities indicate a preferential absorption of R-(+)-talinolol in a lower concentration and dose range, which is most probably due to a moderate stereoselectivity at the carrier system involved in intestinal secretion.