Recent trends in smoking prevalence in Indiana indicate a slow decline in smoking prevalence among adults aged 18 years of age and under. Despite this decline, the smoking prevalence has remained consistently higher among Blacks compared to Whites. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the extent of mortality due to cigarette smoking in 1990 among Blacks and Whites in the state of Indiana. Estimates of smoking-attributable mortality (i.e., smoking-attributable mortality [SAM] and years of potential life lost [YPLL] associated with smoking in 1990 were calculated using SAMMEC, a software program developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and designed to measure the disease impact associated with cigarette smoking. Although the SAM and YPLL for Whites accounted for the greatest percentage of total SAM and total YPLL, SAM rates and YPLL rates were higher among Blacks compared to Whites, for both men and women. The SAM rate for Black men was 4% higher than that of White men and 9% higher for Black women compared to White women. Similarly, the YPLL to life expectancy rate for Black men was 7% higher than the YPLL rate for White men and 29% higher for Black women compared to White women. The greater burden of tobacco-related mortality among Blacks is evidenced through higher SAM and YPLL rates compared to Whites. It is imperative that high-risk populations be targeted at national, state, and local levels through anti-tobacco campaigns.