Type-II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is a heterogeneous disease resulting from insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. beta-Cell dysfunction in Type-II diabetes is characterized by a specific lack of first-phase glucose-induced insulin secretion. This defect is readily reversible upon normalization of blood glucose levels. Chronic hyperglycemia itself is harmful to the beta-cell and affects both insulin biosynthesis and exocytosis. No unique intracellular defect has been demonstrated to be responsible for all common forms of the disease. However, mutations of the glucokinase gene have been identified in maturity onset diabetes in the young, a particular form of NIDDM.