Leptospirosis in Madras--a clinical and serological study

J Assoc Physicians India. 1995 Jul;43(7):456-8.

Abstract

Leptospirosis was confirmed by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) and/or ELISA in 57 patients admitted to the Government General Hospital, Madras, India, during November and December of 1990 and 1991 with symptomatology suggestive of the disease. Fifty (88%) of the 57 cases were males; the mean age of all the cases was 39.6 years (range 17-72). The main clinical features were: fever 100% jaundice 84%, Myalgia 82%, acute renal failure 72% and conjunctival suffusion 58%. Non-azotemic jaundice occurred in 19% of cases. Renal failure was non-oliguric in 24% of cases. 3.5% of patients died. 23 patients underwent peritoneal and/or hemodialysis. ELISA IgM titres ranged from 1:80 to 1:10240 (geometric mean tire 911). MAT titres > or = 1:1600 and > or = 1:800 occurred in 39 of 54 and 51 of 54 cases respectively. Autumnalis was the serogroup most commonly recorded serologically, and Leptospira interrogans serovar autumnalis was isolated from one patient. This study shows that leptospirosis is a significant health problem in Madras, though normally grossly underestimated due to the absence of routine laboratory diagnostic facilities for the disease. Gross under-reporting is also likely in other high rainfall third world areas.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / physiopathology
  • Acute Kidney Injury / therapy
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antibodies, Bacterial / blood
  • Conjunctival Diseases / physiopathology
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Fever / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin G / blood
  • Immunoglobulin M / blood
  • India / epidemiology
  • Jaundice / physiopathology
  • Leptospira / classification
  • Leptospira / isolation & purification
  • Leptospirosis / epidemiology*
  • Leptospirosis / immunology
  • Leptospirosis / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Muscular Diseases / physiopathology
  • Peritoneal Dialysis
  • Renal Dialysis

Substances

  • Antibodies, Bacterial
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Immunoglobulin M