We tested the ability of the recombinant outer membrane proteins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to serve as a protective vaccine against this Gram-negative pathogen in the presence of two main pathophysiological events leading to P. aeruginosa sepsis: (i) systemic infection during immunosuppression; and (ii) bacterial translocation. A hybrid vaccine was cloned which combined the protective epitopes of outer membrane protein F (OprF) and outer membrane protein I (OprI). This vaccine proved to be highly protective against an intraperitoneal challenge with P. aeruginosa in immunosuppressed mice. Oral immunization of mice with recombinant OprI expressing Salmonella dublin, induced s-IgA antibodies in the gut mucosa against OprI. These provided protection against translocation of P. aeruginosa in an immunosuppressed mouse model. To test whether OprI is effective in man, recombinant OprI was purified and used for the immunization of human volunteers. Immunization was tolerated well, and no side effects were observed. Antibody titers against OprI were measured in 90% of the volunteers after immunization.