The azole antimycotics itraconazole and ketoconazole are potent and relatively nonspecific inhibitors of cytochrome P450 enzymes and have a potentially dangerous interaction with midazolam and triazolam. The possible interaction between itraconazole and a short-acting benzodiazepine, temazepam, was investigated in a double-blind, randomized crossover study. Ten healthy volunteers were given placebo or 200 mg itraconazole a day orally for 4 days. The challenge dose of 20 mg of temazepam was ingested on the fourth day, after which plasma samples were collected, and psychomotor performance tests were carried out for 24 h. Despite a statistically significant small increase of the area under the temazepam concentration-time curve, there was no clinically significant interaction, as determined by the psychomotor performance tests. The different metabolic pathways and the lack of significant firstpass metabolism of temazepam explain the great difference in the interaction potential of temazepam compared with midazolam and triazolam. Temazepam, unlike midazolam and triazolam, can be prescribed in usual doses for patients receiving itraconazole and other inhibitors of P450 3A4.