Cataracts are one of the most treatable causes of visual impairment during infancy. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that they have a prevalence of 1.2 to 6.0 cases per 10,000 infants. The morphology of infantile cataracts can be helpful in establishing their etiology and prognosis. Early surgery and optical correction have resulted in an improved outcome for infants with either unilateral or bilateral cataracts. While contact lenses continue to be the standard means of optically correcting an infant's eyes after cataract surgery, intraocular lenses are gaining in popularity as an alternative means of optically correcting these eyes. Post-operative complications occur more commonly after infantile than adult cataract surgery and many of these complications do not develop until years later. As a result, it is critical that children be followed closely on a long term basis after infantile cataract surgery.