A variety of protein-bound or hydrophobic substances, accumulating as a result of pathologic conditions such as exogenous or endogenous intoxications, are removed poorly by conventional detoxification methods because of low accessibility (hemodialysis), insufficient adsorption capabilities (hemosorption), low efficiency (peritoneal dialysis), or economic limitations (high-volume plasmapheresis). Combining advantages of existing methods with microspheric technology, a module-based system was designed. Major operating parameters of the latter can be modified to allow for adjustment to individual clinical situations. An extracorporeal blood circuit including a plasmafilter is combined with a secondary high-velocity plasma circuit driven by a centrifugal pump. Different microspheric adsorbers can be combined in one circuit or applied in sequence. Thus, a prolonged treatment can be tailored using specially designed selective adsorber materials. Comparing this system with existing methods (high-flux hemodialysis, molecular adsorbent recycling system), results from our in vitro studies and animal experiments demonstrate the superior efficiency of substance removal.