Elbow injuries in the throwing athlete are common. Because of the tremendous medial tensile forces and lateral compressive forces borne by the elbow, there is a wide array of injuries that occur. A detailed history and physical examination are necessary for an accurate diagnosis. Many of the injuries discussed can be treated successfully with conservative measures followed by aggressive physical therapy. Prompt recognition and early treatment is mandatory. In those conditions in which conservative treatment tends to fail, the detailed surgical options have been discussed. It is important to select highly motivated patients for those procedures that require extensive rehabilitation postoperatively. The keys to success in elbow surgery are a compliant patient and a well-regimented rehabilitation program.