Lichen acids as uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation of mouse-liver mitochondria

Nat Toxins. 1996;4(2):96-102. doi: 10.1002/19960402nt7.


Three lichen acids-namely, (+)usnic acid, vulpinic acid, and atranorin-were isolated from three lichen species (Usnea articulata, Letharia vulpina, and Parmelia tinctorum, respectively). The effects of these lichen products on mice-liver mitochondrial oxidative functions in various respiratory states and on oxidative phosphorylation were studied polarographically in vitro. The lichen acids exhibited characteristics of the 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a classical uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, they released respiratory control and oligomycin inhibited respiration, hindered ATP synthesis, and enhanced Mg(+2)-ATPase activity. (+)Usnic acid at a concentration of 0.75 microM inhibited ADP/O ratio by 50%, caused maximal stimulation of both state-4 respiration (100%) and ATPase activity (300%). Atranorin was the only lichen acid with no significant effect on ATPase. The uncoupling effect was dose-dependent in all cases. The minimal concentrations required to cause complete uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation were as follows: (+)usnic acid (1 microM), vulpinic acid, atranorin (5 microM) and DNP (50 microM). It was postulated that the three lichen acids induce uncoupling by acting on the inner mitochondrial membrane through their lipophilic properties and protonophoric activities.

MeSH terms

  • 2,4-Dinitrophenol / toxicity
  • Adenosine Triphosphate / biosynthesis
  • Animals
  • Anti-Infective Agents / toxicity*
  • Benzofurans / toxicity
  • Ca(2+) Mg(2+)-ATPase / metabolism
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Furans / toxicity
  • Hydroxybenzoates / toxicity
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mitochondria, Liver / drug effects*
  • Mitochondria, Liver / metabolism
  • Oligomycins / toxicity
  • Oxidative Phosphorylation
  • Oxygen Consumption / drug effects
  • Phenylacetates / toxicity
  • Polarography
  • Uncoupling Agents / toxicity*


  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Benzofurans
  • Furans
  • Hydroxybenzoates
  • Oligomycins
  • Phenylacetates
  • Uncoupling Agents
  • usnic acid
  • vulpinic acid
  • atranorin
  • Adenosine Triphosphate
  • Ca(2+) Mg(2+)-ATPase
  • 2,4-Dinitrophenol