The P300 and regional cerebral blood flow were measured before and after intravenous injection of L-dopa in 10 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and 10 patients with vascular parkinsonism. The P300 was measured with an evoked potential recorder using an oddball paradigm and the regional cerebral blood flow was measured using the stable xenon computed tomography method. The P300 latency was significantly longer and the regional cerebral blood flow in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia was significantly lower in the Parkinson's disease group and the vascular parkinsonism group than in the age-matched healthy control group. The intravenous injection of L-dopa improved these abnormalities significantly in the Parkinson's disease group but did not improve these abnormalities in the vascular parkinsonism group. Cognitive function is considered to be impaired in Parkinson's disease and vascular parkinsonism and L-dopa is considered to improve it in Parkinson's disease.