Objective: To determine the effect of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection on the prevalence of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) and squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) in a population of high-risk women in Senegal.
Design and participants: Cross-sectional study among 759 female commercial sex workers, including 68 with HIV-1, 58 with HIV-2, 14 with HIV-1 and 2, and 619 without HIV infection.
Results: Overall, HPV was detected in 43% of women by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and in 7% by Southern transfer hybridization, with 7.4% of all women having SIL. The mean CD4 count was 820, 1205, and 727 x 10(6)/l for those with HIV-1, HIV-2, and dual HIV-1 and 2 infections, respectively, and 1447 x 10(6)/l for those without HIV infection. Both HIV-1 and HIV-2 were associated with HPV, as detected by PCR [HIV-1 odds ratio (OR), 2.9; 95% confidence interval (Cl), 1.7-4.9; HIV-2 OR, 1.7; 95% Cl, 1.0-2.9]. HIV-2 was also associated with cervical SIL, and although the association between HIV-1 and SIL did not attain statistical significance, a trend was apparent (HIV-1 OR, 1.8; 95% Cl, 0.7-4.7; HIV-2 OR, 2.9; 95% Cl, 1.2-7.2).
Conclusions: Despite less immunosuppression with HIV-2, both HIV-1 and HIV-2 were associated with detection of HPV. HIV-2 was also associated with SIL. Further studies are needed to examine the risks of high-grade SIL and invasive cervical cancer with HIV-1 versus HIV-2 infection.
PIP: Between February 1990 and March 1993, 759 female commercial sex workers who attended sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Dakar, Thies, and Mbour, Senegal, were interviewed and underwent a general physical and detailed gynecologic examination so researchers could ascertain the influence of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection on the prevalence of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) and squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) in this high-risk population. Most lesions were low-grade SIL. 619 had neither HIV-1 nor HIV-2 infection. 9%, 8%, and 2% had HIV-1, HIV-2, and concurrent HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction revealed that 43% had HPV infection, while Southern transfer hybridization found only 7%. HIV-1 infected women faced a significant increased risk for HPV (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.9) as also did HIV-2 infected women (AOR = 1.7). Both these groups also faced an increased risk for SIL (AOR = 1.8 and 2.9, respectively), but the increased risk was not significant. Similarly, women infected with both HIV-1 and HIV-2 faced an increased risk of HPV and SIL (AOR = 4.9 and 5.2, respectively). Among women with HIV infection, women with HPV had a lower CD4 count and CD4/CD8 ratio (854 vs. 1033 million/l, p = 0.08, and 0.88 vs. 1.17, p = 0.05, respectively) than women with no detectable HPV. HIV-positive women with SIL had a lower CD4/CD8 ratio than HIV-positive women without SIL (0.65 vs. 1.03; p = 0.003). HIV-2 women exhibited lower immunosuppression than HIV-1 women. These findings show that both HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection were associated with HPV and SIL. The researchers expressed interest in longitudinal studies designed to examine the risk of high-grade SIL, the direct precursor of invasive cervical cancer, among HIV-infected women.