Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common opportunistic infection and the leading cause of death in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) worldwide. Because HIV is spreading in regions with the highest rates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, HIV is responsible for an increasing proportion of the world's cases of TB. However, advances in molecular biology, clinical practice, and public health policy during the past 5 years offer reasons for hope. Molecular methods have provided insights into the epidemiology of M. tuberculosis transmission and the mechanisms of drug resistance. Rapid diagnostic tests have been developed to facilitate the diagnosis of TB. Retrospective and prospective studies have shown that TB in the HIV-infected person is highly treatable and often preventable. Moreover, directly observed therapy can decrease rates of treatment failure, relapse, drug resistance, and secondary spread. For two consecutive years, the incidence of TB in the United States has declined. Additional resources are needed, however, to achieve similar gains in the developing world.