Evidence suggests an imbalance between antioxidant and oxidant-generating systems resulting in oxidative stress in uremic patients. As plasma proteins are critical targets for oxidants, we developed a novel spectrophotometric assay which allows to detect advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) in uremic plasma. By size-exclusion chromatography AOPP are retrieved in two distinct peaks at 600 and below 80 kDa in uremic plasma, while no such peaks are found in control plasma. Further biochemical characterization revealed that AOPP are carried by oxidized plasma proteins, especially albumin and do not have oxidant properties. AOPP increased in a dose-dependent manner following in vitro exposure of plasma or purified human serum albumin (HSA) to hypochlorous acid. Advanced glycation end products of human serum albumin (AGE-HSA) also increased AOPP levels. In vivo, plasma level of AOPP was the highest in patients on hemodialysis, followed by those on peritoneal dialysis and by undialyzed patients with advanced chronic renal failure. AOPP levels correlated with plasma concentrations of dityrosine and AGE-pentosidine, as indices of oxidant-mediated protein damage, but not with thiobarbituric reactive substances as lipid peroxidation markers. A close correlation was also found between AOPP and neopterin levels, suggesting that AOPP could be part in the monocyte-mediated inflammatory disorders associated with uremia. In conclusion, we propose the measurement of AOPP as a reliable marker to estimate the degree of oxidant-mediated protein damage in uremic patients and to predict the potential efficacy of therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing such an oxidative stress.