Invincible Athletics program: aerobic exercise and performance without strain

Int J Neurosci. 1996 Apr;85(3-4):301-8. doi: 10.3109/00207459608986691.


This study compared physiologic pattern during conventional aerobic exercise to those during Invincible Athletics--a program emphasizing balance and comfort during exercise to increase strength, endurance, and mind-body coordination gradually without the negative effects of the stress/recovery cycle. While heart rats were similar during both workouts, during Invincible Athletics: (1) perceived comfort tended to be higher and perceived exertion tended to be lower; (2) breath rates were significantly lower; (3) respiratory sinus arrhythmia and central-parietal alpha relative power were significantly higher; and (4) endurance was significantly longer. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia decreases with physiologic and mental stress. Heightened respiratory sinus arrhythmia and EEG alpha relative power along with subjective reports of greater comfort, less exertion, and observed increased endurance suggest that during Invincible Athletics athletes may be more easily adapting to the demands made upon them.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Electroencephalography*
  • Exercise / physiology*
  • Exercise / psychology
  • Exercise Test*
  • Guidelines as Topic
  • Heart Rate
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Physical Fitness
  • Pilot Projects
  • Psychophysiology
  • Respiration
  • Sports*
  • Stress, Psychological