The localisation of 14-3-3 proteins compared to that of tau and ubiquitin-protein conjugates in sections of hippocampus from Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains was examined by immunohistochemistry. In all cases (n = 10), anti-14-3-3 stained a proportion of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). In general, NFT stained by anti-14-3-3 were smaller than those stained by anti-tau or anti-ubiquitin-protein conjugates and were more confined to the neuronal cell body. Occasionally, cortical Lewy bodies in cases of Lewy body dementia were also found to be 14-3-3-positive. Since 14-3-3 proteins are central to MAP kinase signalling, the results support the proposal that this pathway is in part responsible for the hyperphosphorylation of tau, which leads to the formation of the paired helical filaments seen in AD brains.