Retinopathy screening in type 2 diabetes: reliability of wide angle fundus photography

Diabet Med. 1996 May;13(5):482-6. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9136(199605)13:5<482::AID-DIA95>3.0.CO;2-I.


The purpose of the study was to assess the reliability of mydriatic 60 degrees fundus photography in a retinopathy screening programme for Type 2 diabetic patients in a primary health care setting. In 323 eligible consecutive Type 2 diabetic patients above 40 years of age, attending a regional shared care diabetes project, mydriatic wide angle fundus photography was compared with standardized fundoscopy in dilated pupils as the recommended test for the detection of diabetic retinopathy. Fundus photography included two black and white transparencies per eye visualizing the central and nasal retinal field. Fundoscopy findings and pictures were scored according to modified Wisconsin criteria. Fundoscopy revealed in 95/646 eyes (14.7%) some degree of diabetic retinopathy. Sensitivity and specificity of fundus photography (omitting ungradable transparencies) were 97% for the diagnosis of any diabetic retinopathy (DRP). All patients with moderate and severe DRP (Wisconsin grade 3 and worse) according to fundoscopy were detected by fundus photography. In conclusion, mydriatic wide angle 60 degrees fundus photography, making two pictures per eye, can be applied effectively and reliably in the detection of diabetic retinopathy in patients with Type 2 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology*
  • Diabetic Retinopathy / classification
  • Diabetic Retinopathy / epidemiology
  • Diabetic Retinopathy / prevention & control*
  • Female
  • Fluorescein Angiography
  • Fundus Oculi*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mydriatics
  • Observer Variation
  • Photography / methods
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Vision Screening*


  • Mydriatics