A classification scheme for malformations of cortical development

Neuropediatrics. 1996 Apr;27(2):59-63. doi: 10.1055/s-2007-973750.


Malformations of the cerebral cortex are being recognized more frequently as a cause of epilepsy, developmental delay, neurological deficits, and mental retardation. Nonetheless, a standard nomenclature and classification system of these malformations, based upon state-of-the art knowledge derived from genetics, embryology, imaging, and pathology, has not been devised. In this manuscript, we propose such a classification system. Moreover, we have constructed the system such that both the framework and the classifications themselves are flexible and can be adapted as our knowledge of the embryology, genetics, imaging, and pathology of these disorders advances. We believe that the use of this classification system will help both clinicians and researchers to understand and think about these disorders and their causes better. In turn, we hope that this improved understanding will lead to further refinements in classification, to advances in our knowledge and, ultimately, to improvements in therapy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Brain Damage, Chronic / classification*
  • Brain Damage, Chronic / diagnosis
  • Brain Damage, Chronic / genetics
  • Cerebral Cortex / abnormalities*
  • Cerebral Cortex / pathology
  • Chromosome Aberrations / classification
  • Chromosome Aberrations / diagnosis
  • Chromosome Aberrations / genetics
  • Chromosome Disorders
  • Congenital Abnormalities / classification*
  • Congenital Abnormalities / diagnosis
  • Congenital Abnormalities / genetics
  • Diagnostic Imaging
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Prognosis
  • Terminology as Topic