The objective of this study was to determine the proliferative responses of peripheral blood lymphocytes of ocular antigens like retinal S-antigen, peptides M and G of S-antigen, yeast histone H3 peptide 106-121 homologous to peptide M and peptide R16 of interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP) in children with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA). We have studied the in vitro proliferative response of peripheral blood lymphocytes from 41 patients with JCA (10 with and 31 without uveitis) and 23 healthy controls against the above antigens. The responders were retested after 1 or 6 months. Fifty (5/10) and 9.7% (3/31) of JCA patients with and without uveitis, respectively, responded (stimulation index > 3) to S-antigen or one of its peptide listed above or yeast histone H3 peptide or R16 of IRBP. None of the healthy controls responded to any of these antigens. The difference in the frequency of responders (SI > 3) between JCA associated with uveitis and healthy controls was statistically significant (p = 0.001). Similarly, the difference between JCA with and without uveitis was also significant (p = 0.013). Our findings suggest that these antigens may have a role in the pathogenesis of uveitis in a subset of patients with JCA.