The correlation between lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) concentrations in children aged 7-24 months and their family members was determined and the association between the Lp(a) values of the children and a family history of coronary heart disease (CHD) was assessed. The Lp(a) values of the children correlated strongly with midparent Lp(a) values as early as at 7 months of age (r = 0.54 to 0.59, p < 0.0001). This correlation was stronger than the correlation of serum total cholesterol and total cholesterol corrected for Lp(a)-cholesterol between children and parents. None of the parents had CHD. The median Lp(a) concentration of the parents with a family history of CHD was significantly higher than that of parents with no such history (111 vs 87 mg/1, p = 0.024). However, the children's Lp(a) levels were not associated with CHD in their grandparents. The genetic dependence of the Lp(a) concentration is already evident in infancy. The Lp(a) concentration in young parents, but not in their 24-month-old children, is associated with CHD in grandparents. This may be explained by a dilution of the genetic influence on Lp(a) over two generations.