Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) has been commonly used in the treatment of renal cancer. Postembolization syndrome consisting of fever, flank pain and gastrointestinal symptoms is encountered in almost every case. We report a case of E. coli-induced retroperitoneal abscess accompanied by intraabdominal free air which developed three weeks after TAE in a 59-year-old woman with T4N0M0 renal cancer. No fistula between abscess and gastrointestinal tract could be demonstrated by gastrofiberscopy and barium enema. Urine culture just before TAE should be examined to avoid such a complication.