We describe 9 patients with radiation myelopathy treated by hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO). In this retrospective study, six out of nine (66%) could have been stabilized or improved by HBO. Physiopathological mechanisms of radiation myelopathy remain controversial and incompletely known. We discuss the putative mechanisms of the beneficial action of HBO on radiation myelopathy. Controlled studies are required to clarify the interest of HBO in this disease.