Blood pressure has been measured using the Doppler ultrasonic technique in 144 infants in the first 11 days of life. Venous angiotensin II levels measured by radioimmunoassay were determined in 75 of these babies. Highly significant correlations were found between systolic blood pressure and gestational age and body weight. AII was inversely related to blood pressure and significantly related to birth weight. Babies with respiratory distress were found to be significantly hypotensive and to have markedly raised AII levels.