The primary disorders of 50 children with increased renal medullary echogenicity on renal ultrasound were studied; 28 girls and 22 boys aged from 1 month to 16 years were classified into four groups based on underlying disease and ultrasound findings. Group 1 was composed of 17 patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (34%); intense echoes throughout the pyramid were predominant. Group 2 consisted of 14 patients with vitamin D toxicity (28%) and an intense echogenic rim around the pyramids. Group 3 included 10 patients with different types of tubulopathies. A slight hyperechogenic rim around the sides and tip of the medullary pyramids was detected. Group 4 was made up of 9 patients with rare underlying conditions. Abdominal X-rays detected medullary calcinosis in only 12 (24%) of the total 50 patients. Ultrasonography appears to be an important tool in the early diagnosis of increased renal medullary echogenicity and medullary nephrocalcinosis.