Recent advances in molecular pharmacology have allowed the characterization of the specific isoforms that mediate the metabolism of various medications. This information can be integrated with older clinical observations to begin to develop specific mechanistic and predictive models of psychotropic drug interactions. The polymorphic cytochrome P450 2D6 has gained much attention, because competition for this isoform is responsible for serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced increases in tricyclic antidepressant concentrations in plasma. However, the cytochrome P450 3A subfamily and the 3A3 and 3A4 isoforms (CYP3A3/4) in particular are becoming increasingly important in psychopharmacology as a result of their central involvement in the metabolism of a wide range of steroids and medications, including antidepressants, benzodiazepines, calcium channel blockers, and carbamazepine. The inhibition of CYP3A3/4 by medications such as certain newer antidepressants, calcium channel blockers, and antibiotics can increase the concentrations of CYP3A3/4 substrates, yielding toxicity. The induction of CYP3A3/4 by medications such as carbamazepine can decrease the concentrations of CYP3A3/4 substrates, yielding inefficiency. Thus, knowledge of the substrates, inhibitors, and inducers of CYP3A3/ and other cytochrome P450 isoforms may help clinicians to anticipate and avoid pharmacokinetic drug interactions and improve rational prescribing practices.