Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in full-term infants

Childs Nerv Syst. 1995 Dec;11(12):698-707. doi: 10.1007/BF00262235.


A retrospective analysis was undertaken in a consecutive series of 33 full-term infants (birth weight > 2500 g and a minimum of 37 weeks gestational age) with symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) admitted to a regional neonatal intensive care unit from January 1986 to December 1992. Eleven infants were born in our institution; 17 were male. The estimated local incidence of symptomatic ICH for the inborn population was 4.9/10000 live births, with a regional incidence of 2.7/10000 live births. Twenty-four (72.3%) infants presented with seizures, apnea, or respiratory distress. Five (15.1%) children developed ICH associated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ventriculoperitoneal shunting, and cardiac surgery. There were two deaths (6.1%) associated with a grade IV periventricular hemorrhage (PVH) and cardiac surgery. Nine infants (27.3%) showed PVH, while an additional nine children developed multifocal cortical hemorrhages. Eight infants (24.2%) showed extra-axial ICH, four children (12.1%) sustained lobar hemorrhages, and three children (9.1%) showed ICH associated with prenatal CNS abnormalities. Excluding five children with iatrogenic ICH, coagulopathies occurred in 9 of 28 infants (32.1%) and constituted a major determinant of the development of ICH. Neurosurgical intervention was limited to one infant with massive ICH and one child with hydrocephalus as a late sequela of ICH. Developmental follow-up was complete in 32 children with a mean and median duration of 3.4 years. Full-term infants with ICH associated with risk factors for hypoxic-ischemic injury showed a significantly greater risk of developmental delay compared to infants with uncomplicated ICH.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / diagnosis*
  • Female
  • Gestational Age
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Retrospective Studies