Silicone oil as endotamponade in cases with attached retina is only indicated in a few very selected cases. These are cases with a high risk of intravitreal hemorrhage and a need for quick visual rehabilitation. We examined 23 patients, who had undergone pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil filling. All patients were diabetics with proliferative retinopathy and recurrent intravitreal hemorrhage. In 14 cases it was the only eye; 11 eyes previously had a vitrectomy. We analyzed these cases for visual acuity, rubeosis, bleeding tendency, reproliferations, cataract development and glaucoma. The follow-up time was 32 months. In 22 of 23 eyes quick visual rehabilitation was achieved, and the patients had at least ambulatory vision within the first week. In one case poor visual acuity was due to exudative maculopathy. No relevant bleeding occurred. In 14 of 16 phacic patients we observed a cataract. Seven patients developed glaucoma, which was due to neovascularization in 5 cases. It was successfully treated in all cases and no visual loss occurred. In 5 cases we observed a peripheral traction retinal detachment, in one case a traction retinal detachment at the posterior pole. In selected cases silicone oil can prevent recurrent intravitreal hemorrhage, allowing rapid visual recovery. Considering the complications, the silicone oil should be removed as soon as possible.