Relationship between time of intake of grapefruit juice and its effect on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of felodipine in healthy subjects

Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1995;49(1-2):61-7. doi: 10.1007/BF00192360.


In this randomised, cross-over study, in nine healthy males given felodipine ER 10 mg PO 200 ml grapefruit juice was found to increase the plasma levels of felodipine even when the juice was taken 24 hours before the drug. Grapefruit juice drunk simultaneously with and 1, 4, 10 or 24 hours before the drug administration resulted in a 32-99% increase in mean Cmax values of felodipine, relative to concomitant water and felodipine intake. The effect on AUC was also significant when juice was taken up to 10 h before the drug. The effect of the interaction decreased with increasing time between juice and drug intake. All treatments produced a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure and an increase in heart rate in comparison with morning basal values. The change in haemodynamic variables was approximately the same after all treatment combinations. Headache was reported more frequently after treatments including grapefruit juice.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Beverages*
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects
  • Calcium Channel Blockers / adverse effects
  • Calcium Channel Blockers / blood
  • Calcium Channel Blockers / pharmacokinetics*
  • Citrus*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Felodipine / adverse effects
  • Felodipine / analogs & derivatives
  • Felodipine / blood
  • Felodipine / metabolism
  • Felodipine / pharmacokinetics*
  • Heart Rate / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Time Factors


  • Calcium Channel Blockers
  • dehydrofelodipine
  • Felodipine