Development of a fistula between an aberrant right subclavian artery and the esophagus is a rare cause of heretofore fatal hematemesis. We report the first known survivor of this devastating complication of the most common aortic arch anomaly. Intraoperative esophagogastroduodenoscopy, intraesophageal balloon tamponade, and arteriography were the keys to successful management. This lesion should be suspected in the setting of bright red, "arterial" hematemesis. Prolonged nasogastric and/or endotracheal intubation should be avoided in patients with a known aberrant right subclavian artery or other aortic arch anomaly.