Problems associated with the clinical use of radiopharmaceuticals: a proposed classification system and troubleshooting guide

Eur J Nucl Med. 1996 Aug;23(8):997-1002. doi: 10.1007/BF01084379.


Problems associated with the clinical use of radiopharmaceuticals can usually be classified into one of four categories: unusual imaging results, adverse reactions, unique difficulties encountered in special patient populations, and quality assurance failures. Each of these problem areas is briefly described and a guide for troubleshooting such problems is presented.

MeSH terms

  • Artifacts
  • Diagnostic Imaging*
  • Humans
  • Nuclear Medicine
  • Quality Assurance, Health Care
  • Radioisotopes / adverse effects*
  • Radioisotopes / therapeutic use
  • Radiotherapy*


  • Radioisotopes