Objective: To evaluate whether differences exist in the occurrence of modifiable risk factors between aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, since these stroke subtypes have frequently been combined in epidemiological studies and labeled hemorrhagic stroke.
Design: Cross-sectional survey.
Setting: Helsinki University Central Hospital in Helsinki, Finland.
Patients: One hundred fifty-six consecutive patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage aged 16 to 60 years (96 males and 60 females) and 281 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (145 males and 136 females) who were admitted to an emergency department.
Main outcome measures: Prevalence of several health habits, previous diseases, and medication of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage were compared with that of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage using multiple logistic regression.
Results: Hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-4.3), diabetes mellitus (OR, 26.4; 95% CI, 3.1-221.6), alcohol intake within the preceding week (for 1-150 g of alcohol: OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.6; for 151-300 g of alcohol: OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 0.8-3.8; and for > 300 g of alcohol: OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 2.1-9.1), and anticoagulant treatment (OR, 21.8; 95% CI, 2.3-207.3) were all significantly more common, but current cigarette smoking (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.2-0.5) was less common in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage than in those with subarachnoid hemorrhage simultaneously after adjustment for sex, age, and body mass index. In males, hypertension (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1-4.5) and alcohol intake (for > 300 g/wk: OR, 5.8; 95% CI, 2.2-15.7) were more common, but current smoking (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.4) was less common in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage than in those with subarachnoid hemorrhage after adjustment for age, body mass index, and diabetes mellitus. In females, hypertension (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.4-5.8) and anticoagulant treatment (OR, 10.0; 95% CI, 1.0-100.2) were more common in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage after adjustment for age and body mass index. In univariate statistics, patients with intracerebral hemorrhage were also older, more often had previous symptoms of cerebral ischemia, and had higher values for body mass index and gamma-glutamyltransferase than did those with subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Conclusions: Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, anticoagulant treatment, and amount of alcohol taken within 1 week seem more commonly to be associated with intracerebral hemorrhage than with subarachnoid hemorrhage, which is, however, associated more frequently with cigarette smoking.