Creatine ingestion favorably affects performance and muscle metabolism during maximal exercise in humans

Am J Physiol. 1996 Jul;271(1 Pt 1):E31-7. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.1996.271.1.E31.


Nine male subjects performed two bouts of 30-s maximal isokinetic cycling before and after ingestion of 20 g creatine (Cr) monohydrate/day for 5 days. Cr ingestion produced a 23.1 +/- 4.7 mmol/kg dry matter increase in the muscle total creatine (TCr) concentration. Total work production during bouts 1 and 2 increased by approximately 4%, and the cumulative increases in both peak and total work production over the two exercise bouts were positively correlated with the increase in muscle TCr. Cumulative loss of ATP was 30.7 +/- 12.2% less after Cr ingestion, despite the increase in work production. Resting phosphocreatine (PCr) increased in type I and II fibers. Changes in PCr before exercise bouts 1 and 2 in type II fibers were positively correlated with changes in PCr degradation during exercise in this fiber type and changes in total work production. The results suggest that improvements in performance were mediated via improved ATP resynthesis as a consequence of increased PCr availability in type II fibers.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism
  • Administration, Oral
  • Adult
  • Bicycling
  • Creatine / metabolism
  • Creatine / pharmacology*
  • Energy Metabolism / drug effects*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Muscle Fibers, Skeletal / metabolism
  • Muscle, Skeletal / drug effects*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / metabolism
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology*
  • Phosphocreatine / metabolism
  • Physical Endurance*


  • Phosphocreatine
  • Adenosine Triphosphate
  • Creatine