A putative integrase gene defines the distal end of a large cluster of ToxR-regulated colonization genes in Vibrio cholerae

Microbiology. 1996 Aug;142 ( Pt 8):2165-74. doi: 10.1099/13500872-142-8-2165.


A large cluster of virulence genes encoding proteins involved in Vibrio cholerae accessory colonization factor (ACF) expression and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) biogenesis is flanked by sequences that resemble bacteriophage attachment (att) half-sites. Adjacent to the attL-like site is a gene (int) that encodes a protein related to the integrase family of site-specific recombinases. The putative vibrio integrase appears to be most closely related to the Escherichia coli cryptic prophage (CP4-57) integrase protein (52% identity, 73% similarity). Genomic analysis of numerous V. cholerae strains (O1, non-O1 and O139) revealed that only vibrios capable of causing epidemic Asiatic cholera possess the TCP-ACF colonization gene cluster in association with the integrase. The fact that the integrase gene is absent in avirulent strains suggests that epidemic strains of V. cholerae obtained the TCP-ACF colonization gene cluster via horizontal transfer.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Bacterial Proteins*
  • Base Sequence
  • DNA Nucleotidyltransferases / biosynthesis
  • DNA Nucleotidyltransferases / genetics*
  • DNA, Bacterial / isolation & purification
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Escherichia coli / genetics
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial*
  • Genotype
  • Integrases
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Multigene Family*
  • Plasmids
  • RNA, Bacterial / isolation & purification
  • Regulon
  • Restriction Mapping
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Transcription, Genetic*
  • Vibrio cholerae / enzymology*
  • Vibrio cholerae / genetics*
  • Vibrio cholerae / pathogenicity
  • Virulence / genetics


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • DNA, Bacterial
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • RNA, Bacterial
  • Transcription Factors
  • toxR protein, Vibrio cholerae
  • toxR protein, bacteria
  • DNA Nucleotidyltransferases
  • Integrases

Associated data

  • GENBANK/U02372