Multilingual translation of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT) quality of life measurement system

Qual Life Res. 1996 Jun;5(3):309-20. doi: 10.1007/BF00433915.


There is need for multilingual cross-culturally valid quality of life (QOL) instrumentation to assess the QOL endpoint in international oncology clinical trials. We therefore initiated a multilingual translation of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT) Quality of Life Measurement System (Version 3) into the following languages: Dutch, French, German, Italian, Norwegian and Swedish. Prior to this project, the FACT Measurement System was available in English, Spanish and Canadian French. The FACT is a self-report instrument which measures multidimensional QOL. The FACT (Version 3) evaluation system uses a 29-49 item compilation of a generic core (29 Likert-type items) and numerous subscales (9-20 items each) which reflect symptoms associated with different diseases, symptom complexes and treatments. The FACT-G (general version) and eight of 18 available cancer-related subscales were translated using an iterative forward-backward translation sequence. After subsequent review by 21 bilingual health professionals, all near final language versions underwent pretesting with a total of 95 patients in the native countries. Available results indicate good overall comprehensibility among native language-speakers. Equivalent foreign language versions of the FACT will permit QOL evaluation of people from diverse cultural backgrounds.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living / psychology*
  • Adaptation, Psychological
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Cross-Cultural Comparison*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Language*
  • Male
  • Multicenter Studies as Topic
  • Neoplasms / psychology*
  • Neoplasms / therapy
  • Psychological Tests / statistics & numerical data*
  • Psychometrics
  • Quality of Life*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sick Role
  • Translating*