Sex-determining mechanisms appear to be very diverse in invertebrates. Haplodiploidy is a widespread mode of reproduction in insects: males are haploid and females are diploid. Several models have been proposed for the genetic mechanisms of sex determination in haplodiploid Hymenoptera. Although a one-locus multi-allele model is valid for several species, sex determination in other species cannot be explained by any of the existing models. Evidence for and predictions of two recently proposed models are discussed. Some genetic and molecular approaches are proposed to study sex determination in Hymenoptera.