Enterovirus 70 (EV70) is a recently emerged human pathogen belonging to the family Picornaviridae. The ability of EV70 to infect a wide variety of nonprimate cell lines in vitro is unique among human enteroviruses. The importance of virus receptors as determinants of viral host range and tropism led us to study the host cell receptor for this unusual picornavirus. We produced a monoclonal antibody (MAb), EVR1, which bound to the surface of HeLa cells and protected them against infection by EV70 but not by poliovirus or by coxsackievirus B3. This antibody also inhibited the binding of [35S]EV70 to HeLa cells. MAb EVR1 did not bind to monkey kidney (LLC-MK2) cells, nor did it protect these cells against virus infection. In Western immunoassays and in immunoprecipitations, MAb EVR1 identified a HeLa cell glycoprotein of approximately 75 kDa that is attached to the cell membrane by a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Decay-accelerating factor (DAF, CD55) is a 70- to 75-kDa GPI-anchored membrane protein that is involved in the regulation of complement and has also been shown to function as a receptor for several enteroviruses. MAb EVR1 bound to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells constitutively expressing human DAF. Anti-DAF MAbs inhibited EV70 binding to HeLa cells and protected them against EV70 infection. Transient expression of human DAF in murine NIH 3T3 cells resulted in binding of labelled EV70 and stably, transformed NIH 3T3 cells expressing DAF were able to support virus replication. These data indicate that the HeLa cell receptor for EV70 is DAF.