Mantle cell lymphomas (MCLs) are frequently associated with the overexpression of PRAD1/cyclin D1, activated by 11q13 translocation and its molecular counterpart BCL-1 gene rearrangement. We recently described the correlation of positive nuclear staining using monoclonal antibody against a PRAD1/cyclin D1 product with mRNA overexpression in MCLs. In the present study, we immunohistochemically investigated the PRAD1/cyclin D1 protein in a large series of 334 lymphoproliferative disorders, including 39 cases of MCLs on paraffin sections. Based on the cyclin D1 positivity, CD5 expression, and the morphologic features of the tumor tissue, four groups of MCL-related lesions were identified among the B-cell lymphomas examined: 36 cases with cyclin D1 overexpression, 35 (95%) of which exhibited CD5-positivity and MCL-morphology (Group 1); four cases of lymphomas with MCL morphology and CD5 expression but lacking cyclin D1 overexpression (Group II); four cases of lymphomas without cyclin D1 overexpression and surface CD5 but that fall within the morphologic boundaries of MCLs (Group III); and 11 cases of CD5-positive diffuse large cell lymphomas without cyclin D1 overexpression (Group IV). The Group I cases demonstrated quite homogeneous clinicopathologic features identical to those of MCLs. This group showed a poor prognosis (11% had 5-year survival), which is highly contrasted with that of Group II (100%). Although the four groups of MCL-related lesions sometimes overlapped in their histologic or phenotypic spectrums, each appeared to show distinct clinicopathologic and prognostic profiles. Our study provides a basis for further clarification of the nature of the neoplasms of Groups II, III, and IV. Moreover, this comprehensive study may indicate that the overexpression of PRAD1/cyclin D1 is biologically essential to defining MCLs.