Occupational exposure of nonsmoking nightclub musicians to environmental tobacco smoke

Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1996 Aug;57(8):746-52. doi: 10.1080/15428119691014611.


This study assessed environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposures of nonsmoking musicians in nightclub environments using total suspended particulate (TSP), the ultraviolet absorbing fraction of TSP (UVPM), gaseous nicotine, saliva nicotine, saliva cotinine, and perceived smokiness as exposure/dose indicators. Measured exposures were as high or higher than those of other occupational groups studied. TSP ranged from 110 to 1714 micrograms/m3 (mean 502, SD 390 micrograms/m3). UVPM (mean 221, SD 95 micrograms/m3) was associated with gaseous and saliva nicotine concentrations. Paired-sample variation was much higher for TSP than for UVPM. Correlation of TSP with UVPM, gaseous nicotine, and saliva nicotine was poor. Paired-sample gaseous nicotine results were similar, with exposures of 28.0 to 50.0 micrograms/m3 (mean 37.1, SD 6.9 micrograms/m3), and were high compared with previous studies. These results suggested that nightclub musicians may be exposed to higher concentrations of ETS than some other occupational groups. Saliva nicotine results were consistent with those previously reported with regard to the range of values, large variation observed, and increase in saliva nicotine levels observable after only a few hours of exposure. Saliva nicotine results could not be correlated with other measures of exposure and did not appear to be a reliable biological indicator of absorbed dose. Saliva cotinine levels were comparable to other occupational groups studied, but were lower than previous findings for bartenders and waitresses. Levels ranged from 1.7 to 5.0 ng/mL (mean 3.4, SD 0.9 ng/mL), and increased with number of exposures during the workweek, but did not correlate with other ETS indicators.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cotinine / analysis
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Music*
  • Occupational Exposure*
  • Recreation*
  • Saliva / chemistry
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution*


  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution
  • Cotinine