In hybrids between the sibling species D. buzzatii and D. koepferae, both sexes are more or less equally viable in the F1. However, backcross males to D. buzzatii are frequently inviable, apparently because of interspecific genetic incompatibilities that are cryptic in the F1. We have performed a genetic dissection of the effects of the X chromosome from D. koepferae. We found only two cytological regions, termed hmi-1 and hmi-2, altogether representing 9% of the whole chromosome, which when introgressed into D. buzzatii cause inviability of hybrid males. Observation of the pattern of asynapsis of polytene chromosomes (incomplete pairing, marking introgressed material) in females and segregation analyses were the technique used to infer the X chromosome regions responsible for this hybrid male inviability. The comparison of these results with those previously obtained with the same technique for hybrid male sterility in this same species pair indicate that in the X chromosome of D. koepferae there are at least seven times more regions that produce hybrid male sterility than hybrid male inviability. We have also found that the inviability brought about by the introgression of hmi-1 is suppressed by the cointrogression of two autosomal sections from D. koepferae. Apparently, these three regions conform to a system of species-specific complementary factors involved in an X-autosome interaction that, when disrupted in backcross hybrids by recombination with the genome of its sibling D. buzzatii, brings about hybrid male inviability.