In vivo targeted gene transfer by non-viral vectors is subjected to anatomical constraints depending on the route of administration. Transfection efficiency and gene expression in vivo using non-viral vectors is also relatively low. We report that in vivo electropermeabilization of the liver tissue of rats in the presence of genes encoding luciferase or beta-galactosidase resulted in the strong expression of these genetic markers in rat liver cells. About 30-40% of the rat liver cells electroporated expressed the beta-galactosidase genetic marker 48 h after electroporation. The marker expression was also detected at least 21 days after transfection at about 5% of the level 48 h after electroporation. The results indicate that gene transfer by electroporation in vivo may avoid anatomical constraints and low transfection efficiency.