Forty AIDS patients suffering from fluconazole-resistant oropharyngeal candidosis were treated with oral itraconazole solution (200-800 mg/day). In 39/49 patients the disease could be initially cured or significantly improved. In contrast to the good clinical results, however, only in six patients a yeast count reduction was observed, and in four patients unchanged high yeast counts persisted. The main pathogen was C. albicans. Even in longtime treatment itraconazole solution was well tolerated. In two patients only the therapy had to be stopped due to the increase of transaminases. Considerable individual deviations in serum concentrations of itraconazole or hydroxy-itraconazole, respectively, were observed which correlated only to a minor degree with clinical and mycological results. Application of itraconazole in a soluble preparation caused an increase in efficacy due to simultaneous local and systemic action. In the case of resistance to fluconazole the itraconazole solution is a valuable alternative to the administration of amphotericin B which is rich in adverse reactions.