The family of receptors for IgG (Fc gamma R) plays an essential role in antibody-mediated effector functions of the immune system. However, the specific contribution of each of the Fc gamma R classes to in vivo immune reactions is still unclear. Here, we demonstrate that mice deficient for the ligand-binding alpha chain of Fc gamma RIII lack NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity and phagocytosis of IgG1-coated particles by macrophages. Strikingly, these mice lack IgG-mediated mast cell degranulation, are resistant to IgG-dependent passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, and exhibit an impaired Arthus reaction. These results indicate a prominent role for Fc gamma RIII in inflammatory and anaphylactic responses, making this receptor a potential target in immunotherapy.